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Can you pipe these back into Known?


LA Makerspace and Biohacker Village

1 min read

DEFCON Biohacker Village

Somehow I was lucky enough to get involved in the group planning a biohacker villege for next year's Defcon. I'd like to be able to present something but feel way out of my league so I might just help with all the projects already going on. Some of the ideas proposed so far are:

  • DNA transformation, such as making E coli red
  • make your own liposomes
  • self-hypnosis
  • bio engeneered beer

LA Makerspace

In addition the LA Makerspace recently started a citizen science program.

The main projects there are:

A list of other Civic open hardware projects by Public Lab.


 From 16/9/2014



2 min read

It is a new semester of school. I've been experimenting with different ways to synchronize my school files. This solution needs to be cross platform (OSX, Win & Debian/Ubuntu), it should also not require root so I can grab my files from any workstation. I started years ago with Dropbox. Then moved to Bittorrent Sync when I got an alpha invite to it because I loved how they provide servers to break through firewalls but the sync system is still decentralized, instead of centralized server my data was replicated on many computers when I got home.

A problem with Bittorrent Sync is I lost the ability to go back in time and recover deleted or overwritten files. Also I had been hoping Bittorrent Sync would be open sourced but it never was which caused me to look for a more open source solution. Last semester I used a private Github repository (Github gives students free private repositories) by way of Sparkleshare to sync files. This worked very well but it got me wondering why I was using a "private" repository when I really should we encrypting my data and just using the server as dumb file storage.

This semester I aimed to find a solution that combined all these requirements: cross platform, doesn't require superuser, open source & pre-internet encryption. My school provides us with 50 gigabytes on, that would be my preferred way to store data. has a Mac, Windows and Web client as well as access via FTPS and WebDAV. I decided to use the WebDAV interface to access it via Linux. This has a 50 meg individual file size limit so that might run into in future.

For pre-internet encryption I settled on alpha (beware!) software called Syncany. This software provides the layer of encryption to translate unencrypted files on your computer to encrypted files on the server and keeps them both in sync. It has different modules, on Windows I used the "local" plugin and sync software to locally decrypt the sync folder. On linux I use the WebDAV plugin so it can directly connect to instead of having an encrypted copy locally.

Other Options:

Repost from Jan 26 2015


Checked into Education building

First day of class!



Dear Architects: Sound Matters

An article on architecture as sound design.



Now with TLS thanks to @letsencrypt!



Decentralized networks

2 min read

This is the beginning of a series of posts on information networks. This is the masterpost where I will link to all the articles as I write them, it will change.

Peer-to-peer network participants share part of their resources over the network to provide a service without the support of any centralized authority.

  • B.A.T.M.A.N.
  • Bitcoin
  • Bitmessage
  • Bittorrent (DHT)
  • CDN (Akamai)
  • Diaspora
  • Email (SMTP)
  • FastTrack (KaZaa, grokster, imesh): Proprietary unstructured overlay with encrypted protocol, high capacity peers become superpeers; features connection shuffling.
  • Freenet
  • Hyperboria (Cjdns)
  • Internet news (NNTP)
  • I2P
  • Kademlia
  • Limewire & FrostWire(?) (Gnutella): Superpeer unstructured overlay with flooding query propagation.
  • Retroshare
  • Ripple
  • Syndie
  • Tor

Types of peer to peer networks


Combine servers with peer to peer routing



A node relies only on its adjacent nodes for delivery of messages to other nodes in the overlay


Superpeers flood requests on behalf of regular peers

Random Walk

Hill Climbing

Provides security, anonymity and deniability

Social Overlays

Semantic Overlays


Nodes cooperatively maintain routing information about how to reach all nodes in a network. The address space is virtualized and peer addresses are typically randomly assigned.

Topology aware overlays

Use measurements of proximity of peers in the underlying network to create neighbor peers in the overlay.

Hierarchical/Federated overlays

Use nested overlay networks. A message to a peer in a different overlay is forwarded to the nearest common parent overlay in the hierarchy. Federated overlays can use different routing/addressing algorithms in each overlay network. Security breaches in one network have the potential to cascade to other overlays through the peering points.


Constant degree

Logarithmic degree

Privacy Integrity Authentication Security protocols